Select the Debugging Tools for Windows check box from the list of features to install:
After the installation is complete, run WinDbg (X86) (the 64-bit version tends to crash):
By default, WinDbg won't have any of the standard Windows symbols loaded. This means that instead of getting a stack trace with meaningful function names, you'll only see addresses of functions. To fix this, configure the Symbol Search Path to point to Microsoft's symbol server:
From the file menu, select File->Symbol File Path and enter the path above into the text box and press OK. WinDbg will download and cache symbols as needed to the folder specified. In this case, the string above will cache symbols in the C:\Symbols folder.
Next, open the crash dump file, commonly located in C:\Windows\Minidump. From the file menu, select File->Open Crash Dump and select the latest .dmp file from the Minidump folder.
After opening the dump file, WinDbg will download the necessary Windows symbols to analyze the dump file. This can take a long time depending on internet connection and speed.
Once the symbols have been loaded, WinDbg will give a basic bugcheck analysis showing the probable cause of the blue screen. In the screenshot below, the probable cause is kbdhid.sys (Microsoft keyboard HID driver file). This is usually enough to determine the most probable culprit. A simple internet search of the .sys file name will typically reveal the driver bundle using the .sys file. In many cases, a newer driver version will be available from the product manufacturer that will fix most blue screen issues.
In some cases, the probable cause is not the actual culprit. For more information, click the !analyze -v link to perform a more detailed analysis. This will give more information about the crash as well as a stack trace. In the screenshot below, the blue screen was caused by a manually initiated crash performed by pressing a specific key combination to initiate a manual crash dump.